Susan Blackmore’s Publications on Memes

This is a list of my published work on memes, including book chapters, scientific papers and popular articles.
See also the list of lectures and conference presentations.
For my full list of publications see Publications.


Click to purchase from AmazonThe Meme Machine 1999. Oxford, Oxford University Press. Hardback ISBN 0-19-850365-2.  2000 Paperback ISBN 0-19-286212-X

Reviews of The Meme Machine

Contributions to Books

Blackmore, S.J. (2010): Dangerous Memes; or what the Pandorans let loose. In Cosmos and Culture: Cultural Evolution in a Cosmic Context, edited by Steven Dick and Mark Lupisella,297-318

Blackmore, S. (2010) Memetics does provide a useful way of understanding cultural evolution. In Contemporary Debates in Philosophy of Biology,  Ed. Francisco Ayala and Robert Arp, Chichester, Wiley-Blackwell,  255-72.

Blackmore, S. (2010) Artificial self-replicating meme machines. In: This Will Change Everything: Ideas that will shape the future. Ed. John Brockman, Harper Perenniel pp 135-8 Reprint of my response to the Edge Question 2009

Blackmore, S. (2009) Behaviourism, Cognitive Psychology, The Placebo Effect, Memetics. Entries in 30-Second Theories. Ed Paul Parsons, Lewes, East Sussex, Ivy Press. pp 78-9, 80-1, 90-1, 144-5.

Blackmore, S. (2007) Memes, minds and imagination. In Imaginative Minds (Proceedings of the British Academy). Ed. Ilona Roth, Oxford University Press, pp 61-78

Blackmore, S.J. (2007) Imitation makes us human. In What makes us human? Ed. Charles Pasternak, Oxford, Oneworld, pp 1-16. Extract

Blackmore (2005) Four chapters in Perspectives on Imitation: From Mirror Neurons to Memes. Ed. S. Hurley and N. Chater, MIT Press
Even deeper misunderstandings of memes; Evidence for memetic drive?: A possible confusion between mimetic and memetic; Can memes meet the challenge?

Blackmore, S. (2003) The evolution of meme machines. In Meneghetti, A. et al. Ontopsychology and Memetics. Rome, Psicologica Editrice 233-240. See also – a note on Ontopsychology
This paper is also available in French, Portuguese, Italian and Russian.

Blackmore, S.J. (2002) Memes as good science. In M. Shermer (Ed) The Skeptic Encyclopedia of Pseudoscience, Santa Barbara, CA., ABC-Clio, 652-663. Reprint of Blackmore,S.J. 1997The power of the meme meme. The Skeptic (US), 5 No 2, 43-49

Blackmore, S.J. (2002) Meme. In M. Pagel (Ed) Encyclopedia of Evolution, New York, Oxford University Press, 713-716

Blackmore,S.J. (2001) Meme. In C.Blakemore and S. Jennett (Eds) Oxford Companion to the Body, Oxford , Oxford University Press, 453-454

Blackmore,S.J. 2000 The meme’s eye view. In Darwinizing Culture: The Status of Memetics as a Science, Ed. R.A.Aunger, Oxford; Oxford University Press.

Blackmore,S.J. 1999 Waking from the Meme Dream. In The Psychology of Awakening: Buddhism, Science and Our Day-to-day Lives. Ed. G.Watson, S.Batchelor and G.Claxton; London, Rider, 112-122. Also available in Italian and French at
and in Spanish in Dharma, 1, 21-9, 2005

Blackmore,S.J. 1999 Memes, minds, and consciousness. In The Future of Psychology. Stichting VSPA Ledenservice, Amsterdam, 39-41abstract

Blackmore,S.J. 1999 Meme und die Zukunft unseres Geistes. In Zukunftsentwürfe: Ideen für eine Kultur der Veränderung. J.Rüsen, H.Leitgeb, and N.Jegelka (Eds) Frankfurt, Campus Verlag, 301-308 (trans B.Gerlinghoff from conference paper “Memes and the Future of our Minds” Essen, Germany, November 1998)

Scientific Papers

Blackmore, S. 2008 Memes shape brains shape memes. Commentary on Christiansen and Chater. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 31, 513

Blackmore, S.J. 2005 Implications for memetics. Commentary on Steels, L and Belpaeme, T. Coordinating perceptually grounded categories through language: A case study for colour. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 28, 490. The whole paper with the commentaries includes a brief but interesting final response to my comments.

Blackmore, S.J. 2003 Consciousness in Meme Machines. Journal of Consciousness Studies, 10, 4-5, 19-30  WORD  PDF

Blackmore,S. 2001 Evolution and memes: The human brain as a selective imitation device. Cybernetics and Systems, 32, 225-255.
Italian translation Blackmore S. (2003), “I memi e lo sviluppo del cervello”, in KOS 211, aprile 2003, pp. 56-64.
German translation Blackmore S. (2003) “Evolution und Meme: Das menschliche Gehirn als selektiver Imitationsapparat.”.

Bull,L., Holland,O. and Blackmore,S.  2000 On meme-gene coevolution. Artificial Life, 6, 227-235

Blackmore,S.J. 2000 Memes and the malign user illusion (abstract), Consciousness and Cognition, 9, S49

Blackmore,S.J. 1999 Meme machines and consciousness, Journal of Intelligent Systems, 9, 355-376 abstract  

Blackmore,S.J. 1998 Imitation and the definition of a meme. Journal of Memetics – Evolutionary Models of Information Transmission, 2.

Popular articles

Blackmore,S.J. 2009 Evolution’s third replicator: Genes, memes and now what? New Scientist, 1 August 2009, 36-39, republished by The New York Times, 22 August 2010 with comments and my response 3 September 2010. See also ‘Help find a name for the new replicator’ New Scientist, 29 July 2009

Blackmore, S.2008 The trouble with Memetics. Skeptical Inquirer, 32,65

Blackmore, S.2007 Memes, Creativity and Consciousness. PROP, October 2007, 50-51 (reprinted from Aesthetica)

Blackmore, S. 2006. Natural selection applies to everything. New Humanist, May, June 2006, 23-24

Blackmore, S. 2006. Memes, Creativity and Consciousness. Aesthetica, May, June, July 2006 Issue 13, 50

Blackmore, S.J. 2000 The power of memes. Scientific American,283:4, 52-61. Also response to letters to the editor, Scientific American, 284:2, 10 Also translated into Russian

Blackmore, S.J. 2000 Do memes make sense? Yes. Free Inquiry, Summer 2000, 42-44 (with commentary “No” by Michael Bradie)

Blackmore, S.J. 1999 The Y2K meme. The Psychologist,12, No 12, 599

Blackmore, S.J. 1999 The forget meme not theory. Times Higher Education Supplement, 26 February,

Don’s Delight in The Guardian (on Dawkins’s The Selfish Gene) 13 April 1999. Also in the Guardian Archives.

Blackmore, S.J. 1999 Meme, myself, I. New Scientist, 13 March, 40-44

Don’s DiaryTimes Higher Education Supplement 22.5.98. A day in my life with thoughts about memes.

Blackmore, S.J. 1997 The power of the meme meme. WavelengthNo.17, 8-9. with response by Richard Bond

Blackmore, S.J. 1997 The power of the meme meme. The Skeptic (USA), 5 No 2, 43-49

Blackmore,S.J. 1997 Memes, minds, and selves. Atheist Nation, October 1997, 7-11.

Speaking VolumesTimes Higher Education Supplement (on Dennett’s Darwin’s Dangerous Idea) 3 September 1997

Book Reviews

Blackmore, S. (2006) Memetics by another name? Review of Not by Genes Alone by P.J. Richerson and R. Boyd. Bioscience, 56, 74-5

Blackmore, S. 2005 The Robot’s Rebellion: Finding Meaning in the Age of Darwin by Keith E. Stanovich,  Philosophical Psychology, 18, 793-7

Blackmore, S. 2005   Review of The New Brain Sciences: Perils and Prospects. Ed. Dai Rees and Steven Rose, Times Higher Education Supplement, March 2005, p 26

Blackmore, S. 2002 Cultural confusion. Review of Human Natures by P. Ehrlich. Contemporary Psychology, 47, 657-659

Blackmore,S. 2000 ‘Me last’ society? Review of Unto Others by E.Sober and D.S.Wilson. The Psychologist, 13, 145